Motor behaviour is the manifestation of collaborative actions between the central and peripheral  nervous systems, communicating with the striated and unstriated muscles via nerves to generate voluntary and involuntary motor outputs. In order to understand the pathophysiological changes after stroke, it is necessary to consider the inter/intra-cellular mechanisms involved in purposeful, or automatic generation of movements. Here, a brief overview of

Swallowing is a sophisticated activity that requires both voluntary and involuntary coordination of motor and sensory mechanisms of the oropharynx. Epidemiologically around 50 percent of stroke survivors have either suffered from dysphagia at the onset of their strokes and recovered, or have been chronically dealing with complications of dysphagia. Swallowing assessment is one of the most important components of the initial survey of stroke patients upon their arrival at the emergency department, simply because it can  

1– Eraifej, J., Clark, W., France, B., Desando, S., & Moore, D. (2017). Effectiveness of upper limb functional electrical stimulation after stroke for the improvement of activities of daily living and motor function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews, 6.
2- Makowski, N., Knutson, J., Chae, J., & Crago, P. (2013). Interaction of post-stroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

Gait and posture are two of the most complicated processes in the human body that require a tremendous amount of neural resources. Whether dealing with Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, stroke or even a simple orthopaedic injury, the brain has the ability to recognize, reorganize and compensate in response to environmental, physical, and neural changes (Nanhoe-Mahabier et al., 2011). The importance and application of understanding the underlying mechanisms of walking and posture goes well beyond neurorehabilitation and opens

Shoulder pain is one of the most common complaints after stroke. The intricate mechanism of the shoulder girdle makes it susceptible to malalignment following any kinds of injury, whether it is a fracture, dislocation or subluxation the pain can be quite debilitating, and the management of such chief complaints could be confusing to most clinicians. Hemiplegic shoulder on the other hand is a combination of multiple restrictions and imbalances in the shoulder girdle and the

If you replace the word “cut” with “fall” in Cat Stevens song ” the first cut is the deepest”  the lyrics actually proves the same point as this article. Falls are common occurrences in hospitals and nursing homes, in fact there are so common that falls prevention committees and falls risk wrist bands and signs have become an integral part of healthcare facilities (Visschedijk, et al, 2015). we are all familiar with those elderly patients who grab for

The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in multiple circuits in the brain including : a motor loop, cognitive loop, limbic loop, and an oculomotor loop. These ganglia are actively receiving and sending signals to and from the cerebral cortex, thalamus, brain stem and cerebellum, hence the clinical presentations such as: Rigidity, bradykinesia, tremors, ataxia, difficulty swallowing and speaking (pseudobulbar palsy), impaired facial expressions and spontaneous movements,  impaired decision making, memory and attention, personality changes, lack of motivation,

” The greater the ignorance the greater the dogmatism “

Wiiliam Osler, Canadian physician, and one of four founders of Johns Hopkins Hospital

 In one of the previous posts, The Men Who Mistook p Values for Significant Results,  we explored how cognitive biases, statistical fallacies and misinterpretation of scientific research have plagued current critical thinking both in clinical medicine and research, and how we blindfoldedly accept statistical analysis as

Ever wondered why coffee is good one day and evil the other day? Did you play Mozart for your kids and hoped they grow up more intelligent ? Same thing happens in medicine, like it or not evidence-based medicine is the pillars of modern medicine. If you think about phrenology, bloodletting and many other things that believed to be effective in the past few decades and